1. 2.1.12. What are the key points and first-aid measures on the fire spot?
    • 2010/10/25 10:49:56
    Burn is a common lesion among fire accidents in industrial production and family accidents. Several points should be noted in the rescue as follows:
    1) Evacuate the patient from the fire spot as soon as possible and remove immediately the wound factors, such as clothes on fire or immersed with hot fluid.
    2) Examine the traumatic condition of the patient, whose burn wounds should be exposed as many as possible and then applied with MEBO and dressed with gauze instantly. Since MEBO is an ointment of changeable dosage form with the melting point of 24 , it turns into liquid form when contacting with skin and absorbs and discharges residual heat from the wound effectively. The former habitual measure of washing the wound with abundant cold water is incorrect, for sudden cold stimulation leaves the capillaries of the microcirculation in the short-term thermally-injured tissue in spasm and stasis, leading to further damage to the burn wound. After the application of MEBO and dressing on the fire spot, the patient can get great psychological comfort, and pain can be alleviated to relieve shock, saving time for systemic treatment.
    3) Make instant examinations over patients with burned face or burned in obturating space to exclude inhalation injury. First is to examine whether the nasal cavity is obstructed by ash-like foreign matters and whether hairs of nose are charred. According to the experiment of clipping and plucking hairs of nose with forceps, the inhalation injury can be diagnosed if hairs of nose can be plucked off easily without pain. Meanwhile, examine whether there is hoarseness in the patients voice and high-sounding rales in auscultation breath sound and other symptoms of inhalation injury. Eliminate foreign matters of nasal cavity and trachea discission or intubation to relieve respiratory obstruction if necessary.
    4) Examine carefully external combined injury with treatment of hemostasis, dressing and fixation. Injuries like bone fracture, pneumothorax, closed abdominal cavity organs injury and cerebral trauma need close observation and expectant treatment.
    5) In principle, severely injured patient far from hospital should be saved in the neighborhood, and transfered to superior hospital after the shock stage (48-72 hrs) with a steady pathogenic condition.