1. 1.4. What are the differences and similarities of embryonic stem cells, somatic cells and adult stem cells?
    • 2010/10/15 9:07:11

    Background information:

    Generally, stem cells are classified as embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells according to the appearing sequence and different developmental potentials of the developing stem cells.


    Embryonic Stem cell (ES cell):ES cell research has prevailed since 1998. ES cell is a totipotent cell, and is produced when the zygote begins to divide and develop into blastula. It has the abilities of self-renewal and differentiation into all body tissues. Preliminary results have been obtained in the in-vitro culture of human embryonic stem cells these years. However, the clinical application is still far from the reality. In addition, ethical and moral concerns are the other barriers in the way of the clinical application of embryonic stem cells beside technique obstacle[4].


    Somatic cell refers to the cell remain relatively static after tissue organs are mature, and is responsible for the structure and function of the tissue organs.


    Adult stem cell is the multipotent stem cell residing in various tissues of the infants and adults, which has the ability of self replication and the ability to generate various types of mature cells with specific phenotypes and functions. Compared with embryonic stem cells, adult stem cells are readily available, avoiding the ethical problem simultaneously. However, it used to be considered that adult stem cell has only the potential of oriented differentiation; therefore it is not “totipotent” as embryonic stem cell due to its “developmental limitation” [5].


    Commonly researched adult stem cells include hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), epidermal stem cells and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) etc. Adult stem cell is the undifferentiated, dynamic intermediate cell[6].  


    It was discovered in our study that potential regenerative cellsPRCsin every tissue organ can be invigorated and induced into stem cells under the right conditions. The damaged structures and functions of organ tissues can be regenerated and restored in situ by our successfully developed technique, such as MEBT, which is stem cell activation and conversion. Until now, we have totally mastered the technique of inducing PRCs into stem cells to form the skin, GI mucosa or other tissues and organs, accompanied by its successful application in clinics for over 20 years, achieved over 40 million clinical cases of tissue organ regeneration in situ.